The two strains in the combo vaccine are not that prevelent in recent outbrakes Two of the major strains have been added to the Fort Dodge stand alone vaccine making it a better choice.
Here the Problem, leptosprosis is a bacterial disease not a viral one. Vaccines are quite effective against viruses for extend period of time recent studies have shown in general many times extend period than the longevity listed by the manufacture. Bacterial vaccines have not proved as effect, for many dogs the protection just does last even a full year. there is a question of the risk of vaccine being to high given that Secondly since it is a bacterial infection that is treatable with antibiotics effectively, if properly diagnosed 3. there are at lease 9 common variant of the lepto bacteria that cause disease(over 200 known) at best only four are contained in a vaccine so to some extent the vaccine can cause a false sense of security. Yes it is very possible to get the disease even if vaccinated for it. One also has to consider the proximity an individual dog is to the disease organism. It is general and outdoor (woodsy) water borne disease. If the dog does not come into contact with that environment then the risk of the disease is greatly reduced.
FWIW from copy of letter in the Evidence Based Vet Forum
"...1. Immunity to Leptospirosis is complex and poorly understood. It can only be measured by challenge studies. This is ethically unacceptable so we have to examine what is happening in the field by epidemiological methods (5).
2. Kansas University reports that the Leptospirosis vaccine is THE major cause of vaccine reactions, so much so that they consider the risks outweigh the benefits. It is no longer considered a core vaccine and they even recommend it should not be given to puppies (9,14).
3. Another study found the vaccine highly immunosuppressive and recommended that the vaccine should not be given in conjunction with other vaccines (it is currently in the UK).
4. The Leptospirosis vaccine does not protect the dog from being infected with the disease; it just minimizes the clinical symptoms. Hence there seems to be/have been a real risk of vaccinated healthy dogs shedding the spirochetes so possibly posing a threat to other dogs and humans. Although one manufacturer has recently claimed it has a new vaccine to prevent this, the clinical study conducted to test the vaccine was based on a sample of only 6 dogs (15). In our opinion a study so narrowly based cannot of course be scientifically credible.
5. The duration of immunity measurable by titre induced by the Leptospirosis vaccine can be as little as a few months (14,16) yet the advised interval for boosters is 1 year, which it seems has been an entirely arbitrary recommendation. By inference it may well be therefore that even vaccinated dogs have not been protected as their owners expect.
6. There is little protection between serovars (types). Use of the vaccine in the USA has led to a shift in the serovars such that the serovars now infecting dogs are not the ones used in the vaccines (14). Can we assume this is true also in the UK? Are we now vaccinating against a disease that barely exists in the form vaccinated for? ..."
1. Allport et al, Letter in Veterinary Times 26-01-04 Call to cease the Policy of Annual Vaccination
2.Gaskell et al (2002) Veterinary Products
Committee (VPC) working group of feline and canine vaccination final report to the VPC. DEFRA, PB 6432
3. BSAVA/BVA joint statement on the vaccination controversy 2004. http://www.bsava.co.uk
4. Veterinary Review (2004) Looking Reality in the Eye. An interview with BSAVA President Ian Mason. Pg 20-22, April 2004.
5. Paul M et al, (2003) Report of the American Animal Hospital association
(AAHA) Canine Vaccine Taskforce: Executive Summary and 2003 Canine Vaccine Guidelines and Recommendations. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 39,
6. Bohm M et al, (2004) Serum antibody titres to Canine Parvovirus, adenovirus and distemper virus in dogs in the UK which had not been vaccinated for at least 3 years. The Veterinary Record April 10, 2004. 457-463
7. Richards J et al (2001) 2000 Report of the American Association of Feline Practitioners and Academy of Feline Medicine Advisory Panel on Feline Vaccines. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 3, 47-72
8. Meyer EK (2001) Vaccine Associated adverse events. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 31, 493-514
10. Intervet Mailing to Veterinary Surgeons
11. Report of the Cat Group on Vaccination. http//www.users.waitrose.com/~thecatgroup/vacc.html
12. Intervet Mailing to Veterinary Surgeons 22-03-04
13. Nelson M (2004) Freda shows the BVA what to expect. Vet Times 26-04-04 p5
14. Greene C et al (2001) Canine Vaccination. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 31, 473-492
15. Intervet Literature on Nobivac Lepto 2 at last. A lepto vaccine that inhibits renal shedding 2004.
16. Coyne MJ, (2001) Duration of Immunity in Dogs after vaccination or naturally acquired infection. The Veterinary Record 149, 509-515.
17. Vaccination in Cats: which ones and how often? Report in Vet Record April 10
2004, pg 452
18. Sparkes A. The Vaccination debate continues. Veterinary Review May
[ July 16, 2005, 11:39 PM: Message edited by: Toughynutter ]