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1. If all four pups were girls, and you bred them all to the same stud (who carries the recessive for good shoulders), does Pup A have a greater chance of having pups with good shoulder assemblies? Or do they all have the same chance?
It depends on whether they are all carrying the recessive. If they are all carrying the recessive, then chances of the recessive trait showing up are equal.

Which is the thing with recessives. Phenotype vs. genotype, all that. Just because a trait doesn't show up in the phenotype doesn't mean it isn't in the genotype. :D

Meaning it is perfectly possible to carry a recessive trait, but not have that trait express itself. Which is why, several generations down the line, poof, a recessive trait can show up even though no one *knew* they were carrying that trait because their parents and grandparents and ggrandparents didn't have it.

2. If you have a pup with a not-good shoulder assembly, but they have a mother, or grandfather, with good shoulders, do you know for sure that they then carry the recessive?
Maybe. Maybe not. This is where genetic testing comes into play. Think of humans. If certain diseases are in your background (sickle cell anemia, Huntington's), chances of you acquiring that disease skyrocket in comparison to the general population. But they have ways these days of checking to see if you carry those genetics. But they don't have genetic tests for everything at this time.

In addition, for some recessive traits, there are *degrees* of expression, so to speak, which may or may not be entirely genetic. My niece has a genetic disorder in which her kidneys cannot process the aminos from protein, for example. There are essentially four stages of this disorder. Whether these stages represent difference genetic configurations or interfaces between genetics and physiology or what seems to be kind of up in the air.

In other words, how many generations down will carry that recessive, if you have someone in the pedigree who had good shoulders? OR does it depend on who else is in the lineage (and whether they carried the recessive)? Or is the recessive gene, once there (as evidenced by good shoulders somewhere in the pedigree) always present in all future pups?

See the things I think about when I can't sleep.... :roll: [/QB]
The recessive trait can be carried forever and ever and ever. Back to humans again ... I'm rh negative. We're a minority because rh negative blood is a recessive trait. Yet we persist at (I think) 5% of the population because the genetics for rh negative are so widely distributed in the general population.

Just because both parents do not arry the trait does not mean that trait is not passed on. It only means that trait is not expressed unless both parents carry it.
 
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